Filmmaker, Photographer, Inventor (1830–1904)
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City has grown in 6 years from small port to enormous City after the 1849 Gold Rush 

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1864 Back to London - learns to take Photographs and returns to San Francisco  

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Yosemite 1860s 

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Official photographer of the Modoc Wars 

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1874 Tried for the murder of Major Harry Larkyns - his wife Flora's lover. Acquitted as jury decided he was entitled to kill the man who had cuckolded him 

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Travels to South America 

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1870  associationw with Leland Stanford 

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Edweard Muybridge worked to solve one of the great puzzles of his time. When a horse gallops - do all of it's hooves leave the ground ? Many thought it impossible - that the horse would collapse without one firm anchor on solid ground.  His sponsor was Californian Leland Stanford, a wealthy businessman and Racehorse breeder and he believed passionately that horses could fly. He allowed Muybridge the facilities on his Palo Alto farm to carry out his experiments and the finance to develop the project. Muybridge managed in 1873 to capture a single image of a horse "flying" but it was not very sharp and even though it solved the conundrum it did not satisfy either man. Muybridge decided that he needed a line of cameras - each capable of only one frame - to trigger automatically as the horse passed. Eventually he would use 24 cameras and had developed a fast shutter capable of  a startlingly quick 1/2000th sec exposure. This coupled with better lenses, improved emulsions and electronic triggers ensured that Muybridge could catch a 24 frame sequence of whatever passed in front of the row of cameras. At the same time his Zoopraxiscope (invented in 1879) enabled him to project the sequence of images - rotating at high speed on glass discs - and enlarge the picture for incredulous audiences all over the world. 

The two men fell out accrimoniously when Stanford published a book of the results and claimed all the credit for himself. Muybridge sued him unsuccessfully but was able to continue his work on Animal Locomotion at the University of Pennsylvania. He produced over 100,000 images of animals, birds and humans - the latter often semi-clothed to display musculature and engaged in sports or everyday activities. 

Today Muybridge is celebrated as the first photographer to capture movement and his Photo-animations are seen as precursors to the world of Moving Pictures which would follow soon after

The Zoetrope is an 18th Century invention which creates an impression of movement in the same way as a Flip book. Muybridge used the a varation of this with many sequential images printed onto a spinning disc. His Zooapraxiscope projected these images and Animal  movement was shown for the first time ever.  

The following films show that the Zoetrope is still an exciting and innovative way of making and projecting 

films. The first was xreated by Pixar and the second - the world's biggest Zoetrope - made and used in anadvert for Sony Bravia TVs. In each case stroboscopic lighting is used to create the filmic effect. 

This is believed to be the oldest film sequence. (bar a 2 sec clip shot a couple of years earlier)  "Arrival of a Train" was made in France in 1896 by the Lumiere Brothers. It shows a train arriving at a provincial station and features in the film Hugo. Many reports from the period say audiences screamed in fear as the train approached not knowing what would happen as it reached the edge of the screen.

In the interim between Muybridge's 1878 "Horse in Motion" made with large format glass plate cameras each recording a single frame - and "Arrival of a Train" nearly 20 years later. Plastic Roll film had been invented by George Eastman and cameras capable of shooting sequences of images up to a minute long had been developed. This signaled the beginning of the Movie age

Lumiere Bros 1895 Cinematascope 

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Jennifer Lawrence on the set of THE HUNGER GAMES.
SC_D11_02856a_R Jennifer Lawrence on the set of THE HUNGER GAMES.
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Movie director Michael Bay films an Airman filling the role of an extra, providing security on the flightline on the set of the movie “Transformers” at Holloman Air Force Base, N.M. on Tuesday, May 30, 2006. The movie is scheduled for release in June 2007
Movie director Michael Bay films an Airman filling the role of an extra, providing security on the flightline on the set of the movie “Transformers” at Holloman Air Force Base, N.M. on Tuesday, May 30, 2006. The movie is scheduled for release in June 2007
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